Diabetes insipidus causes, symptoms and treatment. Today’s subject of this article is diabetes insipidus. Diabetes has two types first Diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus. There is no any connection between these two diseases. They are totally different.
diabetes insipidus vs mellitus
In diabetes mellitus, there is increasing blood sugar level and urine sugar level. In general , Diabetes mellitus is known as just diabetes. Today Where are discussing about diabetes insipidus symptoms , causes and treatment. so let’s start.
Types of diabetes insipidus
There are two types of diabetes insipidus. First one is central diabetes insipidus and second one is nephrogenic diabetes insipidus . Read this post in hindi.
Diabetes insipidus symptoms
Excessive urination – is the first and most important symptom of diabetes insipidus . This is also a Diagnostic feature . Normal person may urinate 1 to 2 litres of urine in 24 hours. But diabetes insipidus patient may urinate upto 20 litre of urine In 24 hours. Every time frequency of urination increased and quantity also increases.
Excessive thirst – because of loss of water through urination , body requires replacement of water. So thirst is a mechanism to replace water and electrolyte imbalance. Cold water is mostly demanded by these patients.
One cant be able to complete his sleep because of he wakes up frequently at night for urination. Fever, vomiting , nausea , hyper acidity, headache are some other complementary symptoms.
Adults may experience sudden weight loss, some tries to put on weight but they can’t put on. Children’s may experience delayed growth , their height and weight is not correlating with their age.
Causes of diabetes insipidus
The main reason is ADH hormone deficiency. ADH hormone means antidiuretic hormone. This controls the urination, whole urination process. When deficiency of ADH hormone occurs , urine is produced excessively, resulting in a condition called as diabetes insipidus.
Other reasons are head injuries, brain surgery , brain tumor gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency . low blood level of potassium , increased levels of calcium , kidney failure either chronic or acute. And the last reason is genetic.
Diabetes insipidus Treatment
Ddavp and desmopressine are the two main drugs used in treatment. These are ADH hormone synthetic analogs. They fulfill the deficiency of ADH in human body. There is nasal spray available in market for conscious patients. And for serious patients there is IM injections also available.
Finding of causes and treating them is also important. In growth hormone deficiency there should be growth hormone in line of treatment . In potassium deficiency you have to give potassium first. In excess of calcium, you have to lower blood calcium level.
Brain tumor operation is also important in brain tumor and treating of Kidney failure if present. One have to stop alcohol consumption and then only your symptoms will get relieved.
Diabetes insipidus diagnosis
The final question arises that when you diagnose yourself as a diabetic insipidus ? when you found that you are urinating lots of urine , then start collecting urine in a large jar.
You have to urinate only in this pot. Measure 24 hours urine output . If there is more than 5 litres of urine found , then you have to consult your family doctor or a physician.